Current research areas are described on each research group´s website.
Doctoral or PhD studies are the third stage, after bachelor and master, in an education in physics.
Doctoral education is based essentially on the knowledge that students acquire during their undergraduate and graduate level studies or equivalent. In addition to the education at basic and advanced levels, the doctoral education in particular develops the knowledge and skills needed to carry out independent research.
The Doctoral education courses provide additional skills and broadening of the scientific outlook. Doctoral students are expected to study some pedagogical courses and to take an active part in seminars. Doctoral students often teach at undergraduate courses.
The PhD students work in close collaboration with their supervisors and colleagues in small research groups, which sometimes belong to larger international collaborations. Travels to conferences, research facilities and visits to other universities are natural ingredients of the education.
The education strives to educate licentiates and doctors so that they have the ability to conduct both high quality research and work with other advanced tasks in academia, industry and in the community, where research experience is essential.